PROGEBE - MALI
c / o DNPI
BP 265, Bamako, Mali
Tel: (223) 20 22 20 22
The area targeted by the project covers the western and southern Mali. Five (5) intervention sites were selected taking into account, inter alia, i) of the "racial purity", ii) diversity of production systems with all species, iii) the state of natural resources; iv) the acuteness of the problem posed by the tsetse fly, v) their cross-border situation.
- Madina Diassa
- Pluviometry: 800-1,200 mm
- Area: 10,520 km2
- Beneficiaries: 152,660
- Cattle: 107,000
- Small ruminants: 221,400
Three priority sites have been identified to be installed at startup. The two remaining secondary sites will be installed later in the light of results achieved within the main sites.
Climatic and biophysical data
The sites belong to the southern Sudanese climate. Essentially, land is divided into three broad categories: (i) land located in the peaks unsuitable for agriculture, (ii) iron crusted lands, and (iii) surfaces of accumulation. Rainfall is between 800 and 1,200 mm/year.
The total number of ruminants concerned by the project is 328,400. The proportions of the two categories of cattle (trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible) in the national herd vary as follows: 6% Ndama cattle and 12.5% of Djallonké small ruminants. Small ruminants husbandry adapts more easily to environmental change than cattle husbandry.
The production system is usually of agro-pastoral type with very low productivity. It receives little financial investment, but is conducted with an intensive use of manpower. The practice of cotton cultivation favors the development of oxen and dairy cows. This type of agriculture coexists within the village lands with livestock husbandry, exploitation of forest resources, and even mining.
Transhumance during the dry season is of low amplitude (100 km at most). Livestock are relatively sedentary. The animals are epresent most of the year in the nearby villages where they are guarded. During the dry season, animals are using post-harvest byproducts.
The project beneficiaries will be primarily the agro-pastoralists living in the selected sites whose number, according to estimates made by countries during the preparation of the project, is about 152,660 inhabitants. These people are very unevenly distributed among different locations due to the variable sizes of the sites and population density.
Most of the beneficiaries of the project are composed of low-income small scale village farmers following integrated agrosilvopastoral strategies. Thus, family farms combine various activities that can be developed on site (agriculture, livestock, fishing, handicrafts, etc.) and out farm activities operating (e.g. seasonal migration). The agro-pastoralists of the selected sites are relatively poorly organized.
Because of their central role in agriculture, women are in charge of milking dairy cows, health care and watering of small ruminants. In families with large numbers of cattle, women are engage in the marketing of milk production surplus. Revenue from the sale of milk or animals owned by women is often used for the benefit of the whole family: purchase of school stationery and clothes for children, food stuffs at critical periods of the year, etc. The strategy of rural women is to diversify up their activities and sources of income. Women's groups are organized around gardening, petty trade, handicrafts, dyeing and fattening activities.
The livestock breeding activity practiced by women residing within the sites selected for the intervention of the project, concerns usually small ruminants (cost effective and easily mobilized short to medium term movable property placement). These savings are often the means of access to cattle which remains the most sought investment. The recent drought periods have highlighted the remarkable resistance of small ruminants, their ability to quickly replenish their numbers, their role both in food and trade of their products, and ultimately, their vital importance for people living in environments with scarce food resources.
Within the framework of the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals, Mali is committed to reducing poverty by 50% in 2015. The strategy calls for diversification and strengthening of the agricultural economic base for subsistence farmers in rural areas and job creation. In addition, the recent rise in oil prices has made more acute the food crisis hitting the beneficiary countries.
Hence, the objectives of project are consistent with the food security and poverty alleviation strategies. Therefore, the increase in livestock productivity will help improve the coverage rate of food needs through local production of meat and milk and subsequently an increase in money income.
Several national, regional and international institutions will be involved in the implementation of the project. These institutions were selected on the basis of their proven expertise in endemic ruminant livestock, the link between research and development, project management or training or their institutional position.
Thus, at the regional level, UNOPS and ITC are the implementing agencies, respectively, for GEF and AfDB funds. ILRI, ITC and CIRDES are the main technical partners in the areas of genetic improvement and training.
At the national level, the Ministry in charge Livestock is the executing agency. IER and STP/CIGQE are the key partners.
In addition, there are plans to collaborate with financial institutions to facilitate access to credit for livestock professionals and with local authorities for the rehabilitation and management of community infrastructures and land.
Financing of livestock
The support of development partners in the management of domestic ruminants with specific genetic traits began at least twenty years ago. The objective was mostly purchase, multiplication and selection of Ndama purebred in ranches in and livestock research stations. But the real impact of these operations on livestock breedes was relatively limited due to the lack of accompanying measures to help maintain and enhance the genetic progress achieved in terms of productivity per head weight. FAO, IFAD,EDF, AfDB, USAID, German Cooperation and French Cooperation have all funded programs dealing in whole or in part on the sustainable management of livestock ecosystems.
On natural resources management, programs on ecosystems management and conservation have been implemented. Funded by various partners, including ADF, German Cooperation, USAID, UE and UNDP, they aimed among other objectives, the establishment of protected areas, conflicts management and capacity building of local communities on sustainable natural resource management.
Natural resource management
Natural resources are the bedrock of many production activities such as agriculture, livestock, fisheries, forestry, wildlife reserves, tourism, and others. The effects induced by repeated droughts and some human actions such as logging, slash and burn agriculture, bush fires and mining pose serious threats to the vegetation cover. In addition, in areas hosting Ndama breeds, the deterioration of natural habitats caused by anthropic and climate causing the incursion of Zebu and cross-breedinge, are the basis of the erosion of specific genetic traits of trypanotolerant races. However, across the entire sub-region, there is still no up to date and reliable data on the number of target populations or on the cross-breeding rates. Under these conditions, the exact extent of the threat to endemic livestock is not clearly defined.
Mali has adopted decentralization policies that transferred responsibilities and resources to the communities or villages. Thus, the planning and execution of development activities based on the exploitation of natural resources com eunder the local level. Thus, local institutions need capacity building to play their role in the management of natural resources in rural areas.
If at the international level, there is a comprehensive legal framework governing the management of animal genetic resources (AnGR) and the preservation of the habitat of endemic ruminant livestock, at the national level there is still no legislation dealing specifically and comprehensively with the management of AnGR.
In Mali, Law No. 91-047/AN-RM of 23February 1991 on the protection of the environment and the living environment, devote some of its provisions to the pastoral resources. Decree No. 99-189 of 5 July 1999 establishes the procedure for the study of impact on environment. The Act establishing the Pastoral Charter principles and general rules governing (i) the conditions of animal’s movement and access to pastoral resources, (ii) the terms of access to farmland, (iii) the protection and development of grazing areas, and (iv) the management of pastoral resources.